Husbands and Wives Eph. 5:21-33

 

Introduction

Dearly beloved, we are gathered together in the sight of God and His people to witness God joining together this man and this woman in holy matrimony.

What kinds of images come to mind when you hear these words? Joy, sadness, anguish, expectation, fear, concern, uncertainty, hope? Perhaps not surprisingly all of these emotions and reactions can be present at a wedding.

Scott Bruzek has written a clear analysis of the dilemma surrounding marriage and the misconceptions of marriage—for pastors and the Church, and the need for a more Biblical view of marriage as holy ground.

Most people think of [the pastor] as an ecclesiastical vending machine. If they put in the right amount of money—say, $200 for a Gothic building, $75 for an organist, $50 for a sexton, $100 for a sermon, and $50 deposit in case somebody throws rice instead of bird seed—then push the right buttons, they expect the perfect wedding to pop out. They assume that marriage within the church is offered offered as a public service, as if the church is just Las Vegas without the kitsch and the pastor is no more than a justice of the peace. In allowing people to think this way about the church, we have lost the sense of the holy. We have surrendered the joy of Adam and Eve at peace with the Lord in Eden (Gn. 2:21–25). We have failed to speak of Moses’ awe in slipping off his sandals and hiding his face before the Lord at the Burning Bush (Ex. 3:3–6) or the disciples’ terror on the Mount of Tranfiguration as they fall face down before Jesus with the shining face (Mk 9:6; Mt 17:6).

In other words, we have lost the sense of the church as other–worldly. We have forgotten that things happen in the Church happen nowhere else, that words and deeds are said and done in the church that said and done nowhere else, and that gifts are given and received in the church that are given and received nowhere else. It is within the church that the holy Lord of heaven and earth has chosen to dwell among his people graciously, and by his merciful presence to hallow space and the time. Certainly the church is in the world, but it is not of the world— it is otherworldly, it is holy (Jn 15:19; 17:11–19). This is what we confess each week in the creeds: “I believe in one, holy, Christian, and apostolic church.”

If we have lost the sense of the holy—the sense of who the Lord is: the holy One; and what the Lord has done: holy things; and when the Lord does them: sacred time; and why: for the saints, the holy ones—even if only in this corner of the church called matrimony, and the church no longer speaks of holiness, then who will? No one. Others may champion values, character, or virtues…

To be faithful as a Christian and a pastor is to speak of holy things. Among the holy things done in Christ’s church is holy marriage. That is how the liturgy speaks—of holy marriage. This thing done …before God and witnesses is utterly otherworldly and wholly sacred. Marriage is holy ground. Marriage is sacred space. (“Marriage as Holy Ground,” Logia Vol. VI, #2, p. 17)

His insightful comments help pastors and churches regain what is Biblical in marriage.

Usually in my premarital pastoral care, the prospective bride and groom have two preconceived ideas about the wedding ceremony: the songs they want sung, and they want to do away with the vows in which the wife pledges to “obey” her husband. Other than that, they will “let” me do anything else I want! I tell them to wait until session five…

But as Christians, is this a legimate approach to a relationship so important as marriage? I think not. Rather, the God who has saved us also sets before us the implications of our new life “in Christ.” That, after all, is the theme of Paul’s letter to the Ephesians. Thus, everything that Paul has written up to this point informs and forms the present text regarding marriage.

1. “Holy Ones”—precondition for a Godly marriage

In the very first verse of Ephesians Paul calls them “saints” or “holy ones.” Building on that, he writes as the precursor of the marriage relationship:

“submitting to one another out of reverence for Christ.” (Eph. 5:21 ESV)

Notice that Paul urges this mutual relationship “out of respect for Christ.” Paul addresses the relationship between husband and wife assuming that both are Christians. In his second letter to the Corinthians Paul writes: “Do not be unequally yoked with unbelievers” (2 Cor. 6:14). If that is true in connection with business dealings, how much more so in a husband-wife relationship?

How many heartaches could be avoided if this one issue were addressed before any announcement of the engagement or the plans for marriage. Certainly this is not to suggest that Christians who marry will not have problems. But as Christians they have the advantage of starting from the same foundation: saved by grace through faith in Jesus Christ (Eph. 2:8-9). Thus, the husband and wife will operate on the basis of their Christian faith and relationship.

Sadly many Christians who marry do not have a Christian marriage; they do not enter it as “holy ones.” They interact according to the prevailing cultural patterns, undermining the relationship, exposing the other to outside attacks. And that can be problematic. Thus, when preparing couples for marriage (and for couples within a troubled marriage), I lead them through a study of Ephesians. We spend considerable time working through what it means to be saved by grace through faith. We discuss the Law Gospel diagram and the relationship based on a proper understanding and application of Law and Gospel. We spend the entire first session on that.

In the second session we examine Ephesians 4:25–32, namely how do Christians interact: dealing with speaking truthfully (4:15; 4:25), anger (4:26–27), words that are spoken and those who overhear (4:29), and avoiding all the negatives of relationships (4:31).

Most importantly we look at the key element of Christian response in each case:

Be kind to one another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, as God in Christ forgave you.  (Eph. 4:32 ESV)

That is, God deals with sin through His Son, Jesus. And He gives the Church and Christians the words to speak forgiveness to one another. Now going back to 5:21–33, everything in marriage is formed and informed in light of God’s love and compassion that forgives, restores, renews. And that changes everything in a marriage.

As Christians who share the same faith in Christ, who have a relationship based on Ephesians 4, the issue of a Christian marriage of Christians is not only a possibility but the only God-pleasing option. God does not want us to settle for less than the best. It is “in Christ” that the husband and wife relationship begins and grows. Thus, both husband and wife live out their life together, submitting to one another in Christ. By doing so, they do not stoop to power plays, domination, or manipulating games. Most important they, and the Church, recognize something more profound about their marriage, it is a holy estate.

 

2. What is Going on? (Ephesians 5:22–33)

Many women and men balk at 5:22 (“Wives, submit to your own husbands…”). Such a reaction reflects the perversions in our culture,  and not an understanding of what Paul writes. Sadly many think that the ceremony in the church is what the two people who are getting married are doing, or will do. As Scott Bruzek writes, “The seeds of this lie in seeing marriage as the public ecclesiastical affirmation of a private vow and the pastor primarily as a witness to this act of two people joining themselves together” (p. 18). Against this view of our work, Jesus, the Holy One, says: “What God has joined together…”—God’s work.

It’s no wonder that we have trouble with this section of Scripture. We look at it as a burden that doesn’t fit our lifestyle. The context of this holy activity is something that God is doing, and will do. Notice how free that makes both wife and husband. Marriage is not ours to do with as we please. With the Holy One, Jesus, the heart of the relationship lies in His forgiving presence. Today is a good day to remember that marriage is the Lord’s work in and through wife and husband. After all, remembering can be understood as a Biblical synonym for faithfulness.

What does marriage involve then? God is joining together, or a more literal rendering “yoking together” two Christians, two “holy ones” in Christ. Think of two animals yoked together, so they can work together, walk together, pull together for a common goal. How similar it is for wives and husbands in Ephesians 5. “Submitting to one another out of reverence for Christ” It implies the equal yoke of one to the other, and God is doing His work in the yoking and the continuing to build that relationship, causing both to grow together.

3. How is this done?

Notice in this long passage, that Paul addresses two groups of people: wives and husbands.

Wives (5:22–24 ESV)

Wives, submit to your own husbands, as to the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife even as Christ is the head of the church, his body, and is himself its Savior. Now as the church submits to Christ, so also wives should submit in everything to their husbands. (Kph. 5:22–25 ESV)

Verse 22 evokes many emotions, unfortunately often negative. “Submit” seems demeaning to the wife, and sadly it is a reality in too many relationships. Abusive husbands try to use this as a “biblical basis” for what they are sinfully doing. Neither this passage, nor any other in the Bible, can be used to justify abuse—NEVER. Abuse is not part of husband-wife relationships, nor of parent-child relationships (Ephesians 6:1–4) or any Christian relationship.

Thus, we have to remember that 5:21 is the over arching guide of the entire section, that is, “mutually submitting to one another in Christ” applies to wives and husbands equally and especially within the marriage relationship.

Note, too, that the text does not say, “Husbands, make sure your wives submit…” That is, wives are the addressed “saints” (“holy ones”) in this passage. Submission is not forced, but freely given, as Paul notes that the Church submits in the same way to Christ. There is nothing negative in this exhortation. Yes, sinful women and sinful men may make this section negative, but that is due to sin, not reflective God’s work and plan for marriage.

Interestingly, when preparing couples for marriage, by the time we get to this section, the wife-to-be tend to have open-eyed amazement realizing that this is a positive statement of relationships. In fact, the most common statement that the wife-to-be makes is: “Wow, I only have three verses, my husband to be has nine verses. I am so thankful that I don’t have his role!”

Husbands (5:25–33 ESV)

Husbands, love your wives, as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her, that he might sanctify her, having cleansed her by the washing of water with the word, so that he might present the church to himself in splendor, without spot or wrinkle or any such thing, that she might be holy and without blemish. In the same way husbands should love their wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. For no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, just as Christ does the church, because we are members of his body.  “Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and hold fast to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh.” This mystery is profound, and I am saying that it refers to Christ and the church. However, let each one of you love his wife as himself, and let the wife see that she respects her husband. (Ephesians 5:25–33 ESV)

When we turn to the husbands, notice that the exhortation is to love your wife as Christ and to give yourself up for her. The role model for the husband is Christ. And now we go back to 5:21:

“submitting to one another out of reverence for Christ.” (Eph. 5:21 ESV)

True submitting to someone is evidenced by the giving up of self for the good of another. For the husband, his challenge is to realize that submission is not making decisions, bossing his wife (and kids) around, as if that is the essence of Christian leadership. Rather he listens, cares for his wife. He sacrifices himself for the sake of his wife. He gives, even his life, for her sake.

Note that when both live within the mutual submission, the relationship can grow, each person being valued, loved, and protected.

Husbands, love your wives, as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her, that he might sanctify her, having cleansed her by the washing of water with the word, so that he might present the church to himself in splendor, without spot or wrinkle or any such thing, that she might be holy and without blemish. (Eph. 5:25–27)

Paul’s words in 5:25-27 remind us of Baptism—God’s cleansing work of the Church. Water with the Word— these are God’s tools as He works in the Church and in marriage. God unites husband and wife as holy ones, because of their baptisms. Extending that saving work, God’s work of absolution (forgiveness) brings the marriage relationship back to Ephesians 4:32. Luther wrote appropriately: “Sinners are attractive because they are loved, they are not loved because they are attractive.”

Word and Sacrament are at the heart of the Church feeding and growing the Church to draw it closer to Jesus. They are also at the heart of the marriage of two Christians. When issues begin to divide a marriage, look at the Word and Sacrament focus of their lives, personally and together.

4. Conclusion

So where do we go from here? I would urge to you to look at your present status. The consider:

1. Read and study God’s Word relative to marriage and Baptism, Lord’s Supper, and absolution: Genesis 2; Matthew 19; Ephesians 5:21–33; 1 Corinthians 7; 1 Peter 3:1–9. In conjunction with this, read Matthew 18:15–20; Ephesians 4:32; Romans 6:1–11; 2 Corinthians 1:3–7; 1 Corinthians 11:23–29.

2. Honor marriage as a holy estate instituted by God, regardless of your current life situation.

Married: commit yourself to God in your marriage. Remain pure in your relationship in thought, word, and deed. Hold up your spouse in prayer regularly, faithfully. The roles are based upon grace in relationship to Christ, thus are Gospel focused, not Law fcoused. Husband and wives have different roles, but not competing roles. What an amazingly profound way that God provides for each to nurture and care for the other.

Those not married: commit yourself to Christ and remain chaste (sexually pure) for marriage. Young people in particular, do not believe the lies of culture/music or be misled by the passion of the moment. And bottom line, if you have sinned, that is not the end for you. Confessing the sin means receiving the forgiveness of sins (1 John 1:8–9).

Divorced: Sadly divorce is a reality in our world. But commit yourself to the God who forgives, restores, renews, and upholds you. Let Psalm 34:18 be a theme for your new life in Christ:

“The LORD is near to the brokenhearted and saves those who are crushed in spirit” (Psalm 34:18 NAS).

God is certainly not finished with anyone. God is about life, re-creation, restoration.

3. Attending weddings: Emotions are a part of life and especially evident in weddings. But do not be overcome with the emotion, but rather rejoice in God’s work of joining together two people in Christ. Often at the conclusion of wedding ceremonies people want to clap, almost as a sign that what the two had done was pleasing to them. Perhaps an alternative (better?) response at the end is to say, “Amen” (“it is firm,” “it is true”) to what God has done.

For indeed, marriage is holy ground, the ceremony is sacred time, because of the Holy One who is present, to join husband and wife to become one flesh, to bless them as they begin their holy life together.

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Christians in Relationship 2

In the first post (Christians in Relationship 1) I presented an overview of Ephesians 4:17-32 as the heart of developing Christian relationships. This also forms the basis for marriage relationships. In other words, how do Paul’s words apply specifically to those who plan to marry or who are married and are struggling?

I use the following diagram as a starting point and work through the relationship from two perspectives.

Marriage01

On the left side is the worldly pattern of establishing and building a relationship; on the right is the Biblical perspective for doing so.

Left Side: Worldly Pattern

Dating: In a worldly approach to relationships the dating phase is physically oriented, most often focused on outward appearances. There is an attraction of some kind on the part of both people. In today’s world that often means the beginnings of a sexual relationship.

As many point out to me, sexual intercourse is the expectation very soon in a relationship. If that doesn’t happen, then questions arise about the other person, and most often about the person himself or herself. Performance becomes critical. In my work with couples the issue is not about the other person, but “How am I performing?” (with the fear of being compared to others).

Engagement: As the couple moves into the Engagement phase, then the focus is on mind, will, and emotions. Here the people begin to know each other in various situations. One learns what makes the other happy, angry, how they speak to and treat one another. During this phase, there can be some heated arguments, what I call “knock-down, drag out fights” (not physically but emotionally). The method of “resolving” the conflict is often by having passionate sex. This leads to the assumption that things will work out because “we have found how well we work through our problems.”

Marriage: In the marriage phase the focus is on the spiritual. Will we have a church wedding? Will the sanctuary be beautiful enough for lasting memories. The first 2-3 years seem idyllic. But then move five years into the future, and see what changes take place. At that point what happens when there is a “knock-down, drag out fight”? Now instead of sex being the soothing balm to reconcile, it becomes the weapon: “You think we are having sex after that? Not on your life!”

Sadly, the pattern that seemed so exciting, soothing, and satisfying now sets the pattern for frustration, anger, and separation. In my experience, such emotions and responses are the stepping stones to divorce.

In my work with married couples on that side of the diagram, they look at me with surprise. Why? Because they recognize the pattern they followed in their relationship. Many times I have heard them exclaim “How did you know?”

Marriage02

Right Side: Biblical Pattern

Then I follow the right side of the diagram and walk them through the same three phases. In this perspective Ephesians 4:17-32 plays the crucial role. The assumption on this perspective is that both people have a right relationship with God, knowing that they are justified by grace through faith in Jesus Christ.

At the very beginning, then, the relationship involves three, not two: man, woman, and Christ. The one person recognizes that the other person is perfectly holy, righteous in God’s sight because of Jesus Christ. They both recognize that they are also 100% saint and 100% sinner. Sin is not absent, but it is dealt with in a Biblical way:

If we say that we have no sin, we are deceiving ourselves and the truth is not in us. If we confess our sins, He is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. (1 John 1:8-9 NAS)

and especially in the context of Ephesians:

Be kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other, just as God in Christ also has forgiven you. (Eph. 4:32 NAS)

Such an approach then is not demanding or expecting the other person to meet your needs. Rather, you help the other person find their spiritual and emotional needs/desires in Christ. This approach gives freedom to both and the best way to resolve problems.

Dating: The relationship develops on the basis of how to speak to one another, and about one another. Respect, appreciation, and concern for the other person comes first. Thus, according to Eph. 4:25-27 anger is not resolved by having sex, but speaking the truth in love. That means addressing both the anger and the underlying issue.

Of course, this approach requires listening to each other, not just to words, but emotions/background as well. The other key point about speaking and listening is how far do the boundaries of the argument extend. In other words, Paul writes:

“Do not let any unwholesome talk come out of your mouths,a but only what is helpful for building others up according to their needs, that it may benefit those who listen.” Eph. 4:29 (NIV)

Thus the argument is not helped by bringing in family or friends. That only compounds the problems and leads to distancing rather resolution. If sin is involved then each person goes back to 1 John 1:8-9 and Ephesians 4:32.

Engagement: In this phase, the process of developing relationships is strengthened and tested. In other words, the proverbial “knock-down, drag out fight” is met head-on with confession and forgiveness (liturgically, absolution). Resolving is not achieved through someone winning, but through Christ and forgiveness. This frees up the couple to deal with the hard issues of mind, will, and emotions that can be debilitating.

Marriage: Now the relationship moves to the joining of husband and wife physically. In this approach, sex becomes a reflection of the love they have for each other based on their relationship to Christ. Now five years later when another major “knock-down, drag out fight”occurs, the resolution is confession and forgiveness. This, then, frees up sex to be not a “solution” but a demonstration of the solution of forgiveness and love in Christ.

So what?

About this time the couple (whether married or considering marriage) begins to despair. The usual question is: “What can be done, since we began on the left side, following the worldly model?”

Here is the astounding good news for them: No matter where they are on the left side of the diagram, confession and forgiveness bring about a new reality; they start over on the right side. Many pre-marital couples then commit themselves to not having sex again until marriage. A few will say “But we love each so much, how can we do this?” That question actually is “me-directed” not “you-directed.” So I ask, “How much do you love this other person?” The typical response is: “I love her/him so much!” Then I ask, “Do you love the person enough not to have sex?” Notice that moves the love from self-centered expression to other-centered.

Over the past 28 years I have seen couples moving to the divorce court who have come through this process, and the divorce court no longer becomes their solution. I continue to work with couples as they learn to develop a love based on confession, forgiveness, and reconciliation. So also, with those contemplating marriage.

This approach takes time, because the world pattern and influence is invasive, persistent, and seductive. This means that not just the pastor but every Christian has to encourage, support, and teach the Biblical pattern. And if sin is involved, then we don’t hold it over someone’s head, but forgive, restore, and continue to help them grow in their relationship with Christ and one another.

Christians in Relationships 1

This is a two part blog on Christians and Relationships. We will end up considering marriage as a special subset. In this blog our focus is the background to relationships among Christians. The second blog will focus on marriage and the relationship within marriage.

Marriage: What comes to mind? The beauty of a wedding ceremony? The attacks on marriage in recent news? The factors within marriage that threaten marriage? Or something else?

Are our views on marriage influenced by the culture in which we live? Is marriage even viable in our culture? Listening to many, we might get the impression that marriage needs to be “expanded.” For some, “other arrangements” are equally viable.

Marriage can be a hot topic, even a painful topic for many. Even if your own marriage is solid, you are probably related to someone of friends of someone who is divorced on moving in that direction.

What is the Christian response to all this?

Many times Christians will point to Ephesians 5:22-33 or 1 Peter 3:1-7, as if such texts solve the problem. In Ephesians 5 Paul wrote about the relationship between husbands and wives, which reflects the relationship Jesus has with the Church. What kind of relationship do you have with Jesus? With your spouse? With family members who are married, divorced, separated?

Ephesians 4:17-32

As pastor I use a different starting point, namely Ephesians 4:17-32. Why? Because there Paul lays the foundation of all relationships (among Christians). The text in Ephesians 5 is one premier example of that but not the entirety of relationships.

Ephesians 4:17-24 (NAS)

17 So this I say, and affirm together with the Lord, that you walk no longer just as the Gentiles also walk, in the futility of their mind, 18 being darkened in their understanding, excluded from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardness of their heart; 19 and they, having become callous, have given themselves over to sensuality for the practice of every kind of impurity with greediness. 20 But you did not learn Christ in this way, 21 if indeed you have heard Him and have been taught in Him, just as truth is in Jesus, 22 that, in reference to your former manner of life, you lay aside the old self, which is being corrupted in accordance with the lusts of deceit, 23 and that you be renewed in the spirit of your mind, 24 and put on the new self, which in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of the truth.

Notice that Paul identified that the new life in Christ (Ephesians 2:4-5) has implications for the person. On the negative side many things are left behind.

“no longer living in futility,
darkened understanding,
excluded from the life of God,
hardness of heart
callous
given to sensuality
greed”

On the positive side, something new comes in place of all that:

“heard Jesus
taught in Him
lay aside old self
renewed in the spirit of your mind
put on new self
created in righteousness
and holiness of the truth.”

Thus, the change from the old person to this new person is not just a temporary fix of a situation. It is not a solution to “make it work” with this person. The change Paul described elsewhere is more dramatic: the old person being put to death, a new person brought to life.

Romans 6:4-6 (NAS)

Therefore we have been buried with Him through baptism into death, so that as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life.… knowing this, that our old self was crucified with Him, in order that our body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be slaves to sin;  7 for he who has died is freed from sin.

11 Even so consider yourselves to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus.

Ephesians 4:25-32 (NAS)

Paul continues in Ephesians 4 to describe that change from death to life.

Therefore, laying aside falsehood, “speak truth each one of you with his neighbor,” for we are members of one another. 26 “Be angry, and yet do not sin”; do not let the sun go down on your anger, 27 and do not give the devil an opportunity. 28 He who steals must steal no longer; but rather he must labor, performing with his own hands what is good, so that he will have something to share with one who has need. 29 Let no unwholesome word proceed from your mouth, but only such a word as is good for edification according to the need of the moment, so that it will give grace to those who hear. 30 Do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption. 31 Let all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamor and slander be put away from you, along with all malice. 32 Be kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other, just as God in Christ also has forgiven you.

Paul covers four items: speaking (25, 29), anger (26, 27), work (28), and forgiving (32). Each of these receives special mention because it is in the abuse or neglect of these that we run into problems.

Speaking the truth: Sadly, even in churches we fail to do so. We hedge our words, we want to criticize but not seem like we are. We want to “share the latest” but really want an excuse to gossip. If we can put someone down (just a little) then that seems to raise our estimate of our own worth. Rather as a new person in Christ, we speak the truth, and we do so in love, genuine God-implanted love. Speaking in such a way shows that this person is indeed a sister or brother in Christ.

Our speaking is not flavored with “spicy/racy” words, a practice all too common among some Christians and even pastors. Rather our words are meant for building up one another. Whoever listens to you will receive grace. In other words, if someone hears you speaking about a fellow Christian, what is the response that will be triggered? Rudeness, vulgarity, anger, sarcasm, bitterness, slander? If you address another Christian about a sin, i.e. Matthew 18:15-20, then that speaking is done in private, not where someone else may overhear.

Do we show love when we speak? Do we show respect? What will your children hear when you speak about your spouse? What about the person you’ve been witnessing to? How will he or she respond to what is heard? As Christians we speak words that encourage, uplift, support, and strengthen others.

Anger seems a way of life for people; some seem to claim that it is “just my nature.” No, that is part of the old nature, the anger that drives and festers and causes wounds. Rather, righteous anger, anger that reflects God’s kingdom is different. This is not a “offense-against-me” kind of anger that is selfish. Rather this righteous anger sees the world falling further into separation from God, the uplifting of sin and what happens to people and the devastation of sin. Thus, Paul can write that “be angry… but do not sin.” Yes, righteous anger, but never an excuse for sin in either unrighteous anger or righteous anger.

Work also shows the change from living dead to living alive. The repentant one will not only desire forgiveness but also what can be done to change the behavior. Thus, the one who had been stealing changes so that instead she or he can work and give to others, i.e. the reverse of stealing.

Forgiving—

Sometimes the hardest thing to do as a Christian is forgive. When someone sins against us, the effects are often greater than the sin. The wounds can be very deep and forgiveness may seem impossible.

Paul wrote this radical solution to sin: Be kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other, just as God in Christ also has forgiven you.

Read previous posts on forgiveness:

Forgiveness in the church

Liturgy — Response to Forgiveness

Liturgy — Brokenness, Forgiveness

God Has Amnesia

Liturgy—Confession and Absolution

Forgiveness for the Fallen